Urbanization, globalization and market turn the legacy of the past in the pages of history books — from a once working system.
The importance of generic and GAZOVOGO factor in our society has become negligible, say the authors of the study “Values of the Kazakhstan society in sociological dimension”. And in the future under the impact of urbanization and development of capitalist relations, their role will diminish even more.
A sense of solidarity only with their ethnic group are also slightly. But then the reasons lie in Soviet national policy.
Overall, experts believe,
Kazakhstan civil identity has already been formed
The study was conducted by team of authors Foundation. Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung on the basis of a national survey.
The social ties developed in the village
The first part of the study deals with the sense of solidarity. The majority (66,1%) have it in the first place against fellow citizens. The authors argue that “the population feels belonging to one nation.” So, we can conclude that the Kazakhstan civil identity is already formed.
The villagers expressed this feeling more than the citizens. The ratio of 75.8 per cent and 59.2 per cent respectively.
Is due to the fact that social ties are developed more in the countryside than in the cities, where particularisation and break the traditional relationship, the researchers said.
Different indicators and age groups. Young people from 18 to 29 years — 62% of respondents. The older generation has had as many as 72.3 percent.
Young people are more susceptible to the processes of cultural globalization
People with the lowest and highest incomes it is also less pronounced than for the owners of moderate means.
— People with low incomes may feel a sense of dissatisfaction and injustice. And, as a result, not to feel their belonging to the same group, the researchers said.
Mostly it is inherent in the people of the Eastern, Western and Central regions of 80.3%, to 70.4% and 69.9%, respectively. Less respondents in the southern regions (62,1%) and the North (48%).
— As you know, in the North of Kazakhstan is home to a significant number of ethnic Russians who, because of certain factors can, to a lesser extent to experience a sense of solidarity towards other citizens of Kazakhstan. It is, first and foremost concerns of the Kazakh language proficiency, the study says.
About gazovoy solidarity remembered only 2%
10.1% of respondents said that first and foremost, experience a feeling of unity with the representatives of their nationality. The researchers conclude that
this is the legacy of Soviet nationalities policy
Although other studies have shown that people are not ready to abandon the “nationality” in documents.
In turn, solidarity only with their ethnic group leads to greater fragmentation of society, — say the authors.
A sense of identity on a national basis is distributed like this:
- South — 15,7%,
- North — 9%,
- West — 8%,
- center — 6,3%,
- East — 5.3 per cent.
The townspeople more than the residents of the village: 13% vs 5.9%, respectively.
Solidarity with people of their own age spoke to 7.4% of the respondents. With approximately equally among young people (18-29 years) and older people (61 years and older).
Interestingly, gazovoy or tribal solidarity noted only 2.2%
The importance of such relations is also more pronounced in the South (3.9 percent) and the West (3.2 per cent). In the North it was mentioned to only 1.8% of respondents in the East – 0,4%, and in the center thereof was not at all.
— Thus, the importance of generic and GAZOVOGO factor in modern Kazakhstan is insignificant, and therefore, sub-ethnic identity is not critical for Kazakhstan. It can be assumed that in the future its role will be further weakened under the impact of further urbanization and development of capitalist relations, the authors note.
The majority sees the country in the future multinational and trilingual
In third place regional identity. It was characteristic of only 5.9% of respondents. And to a greater extent the residents of the cities. Much depends on age group. Among young people the figure was 7.2% and the older generation of 4.9%.
The significance of the factor linguistic identity indicated by 4.3% of respondents.
And from Russian, the figure is higher than that of members of other ethnic groups
Also, it depends on the region. In the North, where there are significant numbers of ethnic Russians, this factor was mentioned by 14.5%. For comparison, in the West 2% and East at 1.4%.
The majority of respondents see Kazakhstan is a multinational country (44,6%), who speak Kazakh, Russian and English. 36.4% of respondents believe that in the future Kazakhstan is a multinational country where people speak Kazakh and Russian languages. However, 10.3 percent believe that in the future Kazakhstan must speak the Kazakh language. Finally, 5.6% of respondents believe that Kazakhstan will be staying only Kazakhs.
Thus, the majority of the population recognizes the importance of a multicultural society conclusion.
But then again see the difference between generations. Older people (44,4%) see Kazakhstan in the future, mainly bilingual. Moreover, the rural population largely supports bilingualism (40,8%) than urban residents (33.4 percent). The authors explain this by the fact that in cities, more bilingual.
Young people in most (45,4%) support trilingualism
Trilingualism in the future see also citizens with a higher income level.
Regional role South (15.4%) and West (12.8 percent) to more actively support the idea of multinational Kazakhstan, whose population speaks only in Kazakh language. Residents of the center (6,3%), North (5,9%) and Eastern (5,6%) to a lesser extent welcome this picture. The idea of Kazakhstan as a multiethnic country whose citizens speak three languages, more active support in the North and East.
The distribution of votes follows: North – 51,6%, East – 51,1%, the center is 44.8%, South – 40.8% and the West is 39.2%.
The importance of development of the Kazakh language are different
15,1% of respondents the most important for the society said the development of the Kazakh language
Most supported this thesis Kazakhs (20.2 per cent).
The most relevant issue for southerners, and the least — for the center.
More than a third of respondents at home I speak mostly in Kazakh, a third Russian and a quarter communicate in both languages. Kazakh speaks more to the rural population: 40% vs. 31,7% of the residents. In the regional context, the leader for southerners.
- South — 52,4%,
- the West is 45.2%,
- East — 37,7%,
- the centre is 10.5%,
- North is 8.6%.
About the same proportion of the rural (26.3 per cent) and urban population (25.5 per cent) use at home and Kazakh, and Russian languages.
To be continued