Every tenth arrived in Russia a foreigner — a citizen of China.
Recently in the Russian information space increasingly voiced the problem of “China threat”. And served it as a fait accompli – the Chinese EN masse receive Russian passports and buying land.
However, as noted Eurasianet.orgthese statements have no basis in reality. Elemental analysis shows that the scale of the Chinese expansion in Russia, to put it mildly, exaggerated.
The scale of Chinese migration
Every tenth arrived in Russia a foreigner — a citizen of China. This is evidenced by the data of the Ministry of internal Affairs of the Russian Federation for the first half of 2019. During this period, the migration service was delivered 863 thousand Chinese.
On the one hand, it’s 30% more than in the first half of last year (664,8 thousand). But the lion’s share of guests were tourists (72%), hotels for up to 30 days.
204,2 of thousand Chinese people who arrived with other intentions, 71.3 thousand indicated as the purpose of their visit work, 36 thousand study, 11.7 thousand “private” purpose and 85.2 thousand “other”. Compared to the same period last year the number who came for work increased by 13.1%, the number of educational migrants — 18.4%.
Although these figures appear significant, the vast majority coming from China, quickly leave the territory of Russia. That is the definition of “migrants” are not covered.
Thus, in the first half of the year has been put on record 863 thousand Chinese citizens, and removed from the register – 805 thousand Given that part came from short-term visits at the end of the first semester withdrew from consideration in the second were not included in the latest report of the Ministry of interior. This means that the number of short-term guests even more.
This is confirmed by Rosstat, which separates out from the statistics of the Ministry of interior those who arrived less than 9 months. According to data of the Ministry, in the first half of migration increase (the number of arrivals from China in 9 months minus the number of outmigrants) was only 3.5 thousand people.
How many Chinese come for a long time
In General, the number of Chinese citizens arriving in Russia for a long time. Migration growth in 2018 amounted to only 477 person in 2017 — 637. And in 2015 and 2016, it decreased by 778 and 810, respectively.
From 2008 to 2014 the total increase amounted to 16,3 thousand of Chinese citizens. From 2017 to mid-2019 $ 4.7 million Chinese have received a temporary residence permit or a residence permit. However, this temporary documents.
If we talk about remaining forever, there is even a significant drop in their numbers. Citizenship of the Russian Federation from 2017 to mid-2019 received a total of 196 PRC. At least talking about it data of the Ministry of interior.
Meanwhile, according to the latest census of 2010, Russian citizens were 28.3 thousand people with Chinese roots. Compared to the previous census of 2002 the number of Russian Chinese declined by 6.3 million people. Since 2010 the Russian passport have received no more than 1 thousand people from China. That is, even if we assume that the observed in the 2000s, the outflow of citizens of Chinese descent has stopped, over the last two decades the number of Russian Chinese still decreased by about 15%.
What do the Chinese in Russia
A significant role in the influx of Chinese migrants, apparently playing a long-term partnership of Russia and China at the state level. In particular, joint implementation of major infrastructure projects.
Now, as stated by the Agency TASS, the Ambassador of China in Russia Gian Luigi Changhua, cooperation between the two countries “rapidly” developing in several industries. These are agriculture, Finance, science and technology, e-Commerce. In the future planned major projects in the fields of energy, aviation, Astronautics, transportation and communications.
On Russian agriculture accounts for 13% of all investments of China in this field outside of their country, says the head of the Ministry of agriculture of the Russian Federation Dmitry Patrushev.
Politician Boris Mironov in 2016, the estimated area given to representatives of the PRC in 49-year lease of forest land (mostly for logging) to 4 million hectares, or 40 sq. km only in Zabaykalsky Krai. For comparison, the area of the Moscow region — 44,3 thousand sq. km.
The presence of Chinese business in Russia is quite noticeable. By February 2018, the country registered 5 867 companies among the owners of which were listed natural and legal persons from China, writes RBC. According to the newspaper, this is only part of the story, as
“large Chinese business is coming to Russia, usually through the jurisdictions of third countries”.
Most of all, according to the RBC legal entities with the participation of the Chinese was in Moscow, Primorye, Petersburg and the Amur region. Chinese businesses in 696 different activities.
The number of firms in the past year reporting of income in excess of at least 100 thousand RUB. per year, much less. Just 1 616 legal entities. But
“companies with Chinese participation, leading real activity in many, and at first glance, in most cases, have Russian leaders.”
Who attracts Chinese workers
According to the survey of EY, the Chinese in Russia are attracted by the domestic market and natural resources. The cost of labor resources, tax and legal framework do not suit them.
Among those working in Russia, the Chinese companies only
11% believe an attractive labour costs, and 26% say that it is extremely uncompetitive
But labor from China, for example, in the far East — cheaper. According to research Agency “Vostok of Russia”, among the Chinese involved in the quota of foreign employees significantly more than from other countries.
In particular, in 2019, the citizens of China in the far East received 51% of all issued in the region quotas. However, the absolute figures are relatively modest – 27.8 thousand people. In the whole of Russia at the end of the first half of 2019, a valid work permit was 39.8 thousand Chinese. The validity of such documents is usually limited to several months.
Why Chinese Russian education
Over the past seven years, the number of Chinese students at Russian universities increased by almost twice — up to 30 thousand people. According to the Ministry of education, most of Chinese are studying full-time in Moscow, St. Petersburg and far Eastern universities.
One reason for the interest in the Russian high schools — low cost of education compared to USA and Europe. The second reason is the desire to learn Russian language as said the graduate of a Moscow University to the Chinese newspaper Renmin Ribao.
Preference Chinese give science, engineering, and technical professions.
The attitude of the Chinese in Russia
In the Russian media often can come across quite harsh statements about migration from China.
So, specialist the Pacific Institute of geography Feb RAS Vladimir Bocharnikov said in “Nezavisimaya Gazeta” that
“the evidence is that in the near future in the far East, the Chinese will become the most numerous nation”
“They are all more active “peace” introduction to the economy and life of Siberia and the Far East… the Chinese know how to wait and can plan and achieve for centuries.”
In turn, political scientist Alexander Khramchikhin fearsthat changing the demographic balance in favor of the Chinese might entail political and territorial claims to Russia.
Meanwhile, the RIA “Novosti” Victor marakhovskii pointed to the dubiousness of the statements about the “yellow peril“. However, he noted: the statement that “the Chinese have ALREADY captured the far East”, stumbling over one problem:
“For two decades no one was able to present these leaked million. And data from the Russian migration authorities every time demonstrate some sad tens of thousands of Chinese instead of the required OSA.”
Mass migration threatens
The attitude of Russians to the Chinese migration from the PRC is generally negative. According to the results of the survey “Levada-center”, more than half of Russians (53%) favor restricting Chinese migration.
While 28% of respondents are willing to put the Chinese in Russia is only temporary. While 25% favor a complete ban on the arrival of the Chinese citizens in the country. To see people from China among the inhabitants of Russia are ready, only 19% of respondents. Even less would like to have the Chinese among friends and relatives — 10%.
Meanwhile, a significant increase in labour migration from China in the near future is unlikely. As noted by the staff of the Institute for Far Eastern studies, after the devaluation of the ruble in 2014 the salary in Russia was below the Chinese.